How to Develop and Upload your Web Page?

How to Develop and Upload your Web Page?

After this lecture, you will be able to develop your own web page and will be able to upload your web page.

We will discuss a developed web page and learn how it is developed. Let’s start

First of all, we will discuss a cod written in the Html language. Html is hypertext markup language that is used to develop web pages or user interfaces. It works in the tags. For example, if we want bold some text we will use the following tag <b>Text</b>. In this expression <b> is starting tag and </b> is the end tag. Now a day the latest version of Html is available that is HTML5 it has many new features.

To design the web page we use CSS (cascading style sheets) language and for effects and animations, we use JavaScript and jquery.

You have to follow the following steps to develop the web page.

Step 1: Open the Notepad.

Step 2: write the following code:

<Html>

<Head>

<Title>

Title goes here which will be display at the top left corner of the web page.

</title>

</head>

<Body>

Page body goes here

<H1>Shahzaib Akbar</H1>

<p>I am Mr. Shahzaib Akbar graduated in software engineering from GCUF</p>

<a href:”http://www.google.com“>Google</a>

</Body>

</html>

Step 3: save this notepad page on the desktop of the computer with extension .html

Step 4: Open this page in the browser. You will see you browsers window like below.

Note:  Note that HTML, title, head, and body tags are essential for developing a web page. This language is not case sensitive.

Lecture #5 What is PC (Personal Computer)..? Various Components of Computer

What is PC(Personal Computer)..? Various Components of Computer

What is PC (Personal Computer)..?

You want to know What is PC its abbreviation of Personal computer Which is the categories of computer. It consists of three main components. They are Input unit, Central Processing Unit (CPU), and output unit.We may also says that these are the main Components of Computer

  1. Input Unit:

There are several input devices that are used to input the computer. Some most important input devices are Keyboard, microphone, touch screen and scanner etc…

  1. CPU:

CPU stands for Central processing unit. It is also called the brain of the computer. It takes input from user and processes the input and sends the results as outputs to the monitor to display.

  1. Output Unit:

CPU sends the results to the output device to display. Most common output device is Monitor. Printer, touch screens.

Central Processing Unit (CPU):

CPU is the main Component of Computer In front of CPU we can be able to access the CD-ROM, Floppy Disk Drive and also buttons by using that buttons we can turn the computer on and off. Two or Three holes like to that we can plug in the head phone or micro phone Pins.

From Back end of CPU we saw the different kinds of ports like network port, Keyboard or mouse port, Power supply port, Monitor Cable port, Video Port etc…

In this lecture we understand and discuss the different parts of CPU in detail. We will discuss the inner structure of the CPU with the help of an image.

What is PC

Central Processing unit (CPU) consists of several parts lets discuss:

  1. CD-ROM:

It stands for Compact Disk Read Only Memory. Here CD is inserted It is used to read the Compact disk. Below is the image of CD-ROM

CD-ROM

  1. Power Cable:

This is used to supply the power to the CPU that is very necessary for computer to run it on.

Power Cable

  1. Floppy Drive:

It is also a hardware device that can read write data. It was the first storage device that can read/write portable device and was invented by IBM in 1967.

Floppy Drive

  1. Data Cable:

Data cable is any media that is used to transfer the baseband transmitters to receiver. Examples are Ethernet cables, Network Cables.

Data Cable

  1. Hard Disk Drive:

Hard disk drive (HDD) is a data storage device that is used for storing and retrieving the information. The information stored on it can be read and write on this HDD. The information is stored on one or more rapidly rotating disks called platters coated with magnetic material.

Hard Disk Drive

  1. Power Supply:

From this power cable is plugged into it that supplies power to the computer.

Power Supply

  1. Processor:

Processor is the main  component of the computer that processes the data input taken from input devices and sends the processed results to the output devices like monitors, LCD or Touch screen type output device.

Processor

  1. Fan:

It is fan just cooled down the microprocessor chip. Microprocessor consists of millions of transistors that become hot when hundreds of megabytes data is processed and in this situation metal used on the surface of fan box absorbs the heat and spreads it around all four sides. Fan also transfers heat outside and cooled down the microprocessor chip.

Fan

  1. Expansion Cards and Slots:

Expansion card in computing is printed circuit board that can be inserted in the electronic connector or expansion slot.

Expansion Cards and Slots

  1. System Bus:

Different components of the computer use system buses to communicate with each other. Buses are of two types: “What is PC (Personal Computer)..? Various Components of Computer”

  • System Bus:

Different components of the system communicate with each other by using this Bus.

  • Memory Bus:

Different components communicate with memory by using this Bus.

  1. Mouse:

Mouse is very common pointing device that consists of ball that rotates when we move the mouse over a plan surface.

In the next coming lecture we will discuss the other remaining components of the computer in detail.

  1. Network Card:
  2. Video Card:
  3. RAM:

You Learned What is PC (Personal Computer)..? Various Components of Computer

Related:

[..Classification of Computer..] [..World Wide Web history..] [..evolution of computers..] [..introduction to Computer..] [..history of internet..] [..Short History of Computerf..]

lecture #4 Classification of Computer or types of Computers

Classification of Computer or types of Computers

The goal of this lecture is to learn to classify the computer according to their size, capabilities and targeted applications.  Also to find out the essential building blocks that makes up a modern computer.”

Here we will also discuss the Classification of Computer or types of Computers essential common components of all the categories. classification of computer  types of computer

The following are some categories of the computer:

  1. Super Computers:

In Classification of Computer or types of Computers Super Computer is an important factor They are just built by using the previous available better technology. Super computers are used to do special tasks like weather prediction, for military purposes, for air traffic controls. Super computers are very fast e.g. it can perform millions of the operations per second. But now modern computers can perform trillions of the operations per second.

It consists of

Processor:  8192 Micro processors

Memory:   6 Trillion bytes

Storage:   160 trillion bytes

Price:  About 10 millions of dollars

  1. Mainframe computers or Enterprise Servers:

Processor:  Multiple processors not thousands

Memory:  In Gigabytes

Storage:   Trillion bytes

Price:    1 Millions of dollars

  1. Mini Computers:
  • Low-cost computer
  • Automation Is Vexation
  • Slow instruction execution time and cycle time
  • Greater programming difficulty

4.Servers:

Processor: may be of 2, 3, or 4 processors

Memory:  In Gigabytes

Storage:  Trillions of bytes

Price:   few thousand dollars

  1. Desktop or Microcomputers:

Processor:  may be of 1 or 2 processors

Memory:  In Megabytes

Storage:   In Gigabytes

Price:   $1000

  1. Mobile Computers:

Mobile Computer is Best types of Computer Mobile computer has three sub categories.

  1. Laptop Computers

Processor: less number of microprocessors

Memory:   256 Megabytes

Storage:   40 Gigabytes

Price:  expansive than PC

  1. Palmtops

Processor:  less number of microprocessors

Memory: In Megabytes

Storage: In Megabytes

Price:  $200 to $700

  1. Wearable

Processor:   Less number of processors

Memory: In Megabytes

Storage: In Megabytes

Price: $200 to $400

“Classification of Computer or types of Computers”

Also Visit [..evolution of computers ..][..World Wide Web history..][..introduction to Computer..]

Common things in all the computers:

  • Hardware’s: The physical parts of a computer to which we can see and touch. E.g. Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, Speakers etc…
  • Software’s: Ordered set of instructions to solve a specific problem.

Note: Both the hardware and software are necessary in computing without either of them computers can’t do anything just computers are nothing but with software’s and hardware’s.Classification of Computer or types of Computers

  1. Input Subsystem: Through this component we just tell the computer about what to do? We just input the computer through this component.
  2. Processor: When we input the computer, this input goes into the processor; the processor just processes the information coming from the input medium.
  3. Memory: In this component of the computer something is stored temporarily during calculations.
  4. Storage: In this component something is stored permanently that is not used immediately but in future it is used.
  5. Output: Through this component computer communicates with us and through input component we communicate with the computer.
  6. The BUS: the most important component of the computer is the Bus because the through the bus all the above 5 components communicate with each other.

There are two types of Bus:

  1. System Bus: through system bus computer communicates with the input, output and the other hardware devices.
  2. Memory Bus: Through memory bus system communicates with the memory.

What is Port?

It is connection point that is used to connect the input and output devices to the computer.

The following are some types of ports:

  1. Parallel
  2. Serial
  3. SCSI
  4. USB
  5. Fire wire

What is processor?

It is main engine of the computer that mostly does everything. The following are some types of processors that are most commonly used:

  1. Pentium
  2. PC’s
  3. Celeron
  4. Athlon
  5. PowerPC
  6. Strong arm: microprocessor for PDA’s
  7. Spark: Special purpose Microprocessor for Workstations
  8. Crusoe: This microprocessor is used in laptops and use very low power.

What is Memory?

There are many types of memory:

  1. RAM: It is a volatile memory that is used during processing of the data. When the data is processed which data is necessary to perform processing is temporarily stored in this memory. It is an electronic form of memory.
  2. Punch card
  3. ROM
  4. Hard Disk
  5. Floppy Disk
  6. Tape
  7. CD
  8. DVD

What are the Output Devices?

  1. Printer
  2. Plotter
  3. Speakers
  4. Monitor

The devices which works as both input and out are:

  1. Modem
  2. Network Cards
  3. Touch screens

Classification of Computer or types of Computers

Related:

lecture #1 Short History of Computer

lecture #2 evolution of computers

lecture #3 History of internet

Lecture #3 Introduction to World Wide Web history of internet (WWW)

Introduction to World Wide Web history of internet (WWW)

World Wide Web history of internet In this lecture, we will discuss the WWW that what is WWW? How does it work? How it was at its first stage and how it is now and what will be added to it in the future?

Who invented the WWW?

In 1989, WWW (World Wide Web) was invented. It was a great event in the history of computer that is being used till now even in the mobile phones. It was developed by the Tim Berners Lee British Physicist at the Corn in Geneva. In the next coming lecture, we will discuss WWW in detail.  World Wide Web history of internet

What is World Wide Web (WWW)?

It is a huge collection of information. All the information that all humans have in its mind is available in WWW. It is basically the source of information. The information from all around the world exists in it. It is basically of two types that are it is

  • Logically Unified
  • Physically distributed

One of the most important things about the World Wide Web is that it can be accessed by any person either he lives in India, Either in the Pakistan, either anywhere in the world. Everyone is allowed to access it. It has no restrictions. World Wide Web history of internet

How is it used?

There are simple steps to use it just follow these steps you will be able to use WWW.

  • Sit before the computer and turn it on.
  • Make sure the internet connection
  • Launch the browser
  • Enter the address of the page in the Url Address bar and click Enter.

Just follow the above steps and you will be able to access and use WWW. World Wide Web history of internet

Introduction to World Wide Web history of internet

1993 – World’s first browser:

First of all, we should have knowledge about Web browser that what is actually it? The simple answer is that it is the tool used to access the www.

World’s first browser “Mosaic” was developed at the University of Illinois. It has some basic features

  • Its pages were test bases
  • Later on, it was enhanced to Graphics

It is also called grandfather of the WWW.

What is URL (Uniform Resource Locator)?

URL is simply the address of the web page to access the page. It is entered in the address bar of the browser.

Are the accessed pages are paid?

It is very interesting that is the web pages are paid or not? Luckily it is very interesting that most of the web pages are free that have very useful information. Anyway, some of the web pages exist on the WWW that it has to pay to access those pages.World Wide Web history of internet

How WWW works?

It works through hyperlinks. These are the blue colored underlined text has the hidden address of the web pages.

  • In I999, the number of web pages is about 800 million
  • In 2002, it was about 8 billion

And now probably it would be raised up to trillions.

Question is that why the number of the web pages is increasing so fast?

The simple answer is that it is due to the unrestrictive access to WWW. There is no control on the web pages by anyone so that it is increasing fast.

What is a website?

The website is just a collection of related documents. All the Websites mostly have the common pages like Home page, about us, contact us pages.

“Home” page: It is just like the cover page of any document. It is the top most page of any website.

“Contact us” page: it has the contact number or contact related information of the owners of the websites.

“About Us” page: This page provides the information about the objective of making the web.

What are the Search Engines?

Search engines are types of websites that facilitate to access the websites. They find the new websites and do searches the new keywords, words that exist on different kinds of websites. They index the different websites and when we write the key word in the search box of the search engines and press enter then search engines search this keyword and its related content on different websites and display it.World Wide Web history of internet

Examples are Google search engine, Amazon, Microsoft, Yahoo etc…

  • Google search is very popular and mostly used the search engine.
  • Amazon provides the education related content.
  • Microsoft is used to provide the information about the Microsoft products.
  • Yahoo is a general purpose search engine.

Google is very useful tool there are no restrictions to upload pages you can easily post your pages or documents on the websites.

Also, Visit […Evolution of computers..] […Short History of Computer…]

Internet VS web:

It is very important to differentiate the Internet from a web.

Web: the web is just a service runs over the internet.

Internet: It is the infrastructure on which the webs run.

Information is available in form of video, audio, images in the form of texts and animations.“World Wide Web history of internet”

Web impact on the different fields like society, on computing on business:

Web impact on Computing:

Due to the web number of peoples is increasing that use the computer to get information of different kinds. And everyone now a day wants to touch with the computer even children’s due to this demand of the computer has been increased and it also lowers the cost. And currently, computer has become very simple and easy.

Web impact on Society:

World Wide Web history of internet The Web provides the affordable and user-friendly communication. Different kinds of software are available that facilitate the peoples from different places to communicate. Due to this, the world has become the global village like that can communicate with each by just using the web.

Web impact on business or commerce:

By using the web peoples can control their business by just sitting in their homes. They can do their office work very easily.

Note: The disadvantage of using a computer in homes is that peoples offer less time to their families, children are that affects badly the children’s growth.

Disadvantages of the web?

The Web is just designed for humans, not for a computer just humans can understand it. In the future concept of the web, semantics will be introduced to which computer also will understand easily.World Wide Web history of internet

Note: Future will be of Semantic Web

 

Lecture #2 Short history or evolution of computers since 1833 to till now

Evolution of computers

Why is it necessary to discuss the past in the history of Computers..?

There are three reasons it is very necessary to discuss the past

  • Because in the sequence of any innovation has some similarities of the previously developed. Every milestone has very much part of the previously developed product.
  • Scientist or innovators have some kind of mistakes during the research so we have to aware of these mistakes.
  • Sometimes we have ideas in mind and do not know that it was yet created or not. So by reading the past, we have known about this that it is developed or not.

Here I will explain the complete evolution of computers that how was the world’s first computer and how we are able to get hand held computer nowadays.

History or evolution of computers since 1833 to till now.

1833 – Analytical Engine:

In 1833, Charles Babbage ( the Very famous mathematician of that era in Cambridge University) design a first digital mechanical general purpose computer named as analytical engine due to this great innovation of Babbage, He is known as the father of Computer.  But in those days there was no high technology exists in those days that can implement the Charles Babbage design.  Charles Babbage was the great researcher and he has not enough money that it can research and implement his design. For this purpose, he with his intelligent and famous student Ada the Countess for lovelies (She was the very famous student of Charles Babbage in mathematics and she writes the first computer program for Babbage’s Digital computer) both decide a plan to earn money. They work for the computing schemes and idea was that they will sell it to the peoples and earn money in this way and they could research easily but an idea has flopped and they lose each and everything due to the cleverness of the Charles Babbage.evolution of computers

1801 – Innovation of Punched Cards:

evolution of computers In 1801 Joseph Marie innovates the punch cards and they are just used in textile mills for a loom. There was no link between punch cards and the computing, later on, they were being introduced in computing for storage of data. The innovation of punched cards was very strange when he introduced punched cards then it should have to face many problems because firstly peoples worked in textile mills to loom the cotton after that punched cards were being used for that purpose. So textiles mills get out the number of peoples from industry.

1904 – Innovation of Vacuum tubes:

evolution of computers In 1904 Vacuum tubes was invented by an English Physicist John Fleming. Later on, they are replaced by the transistors.

1936 – Turing Machine:

Alan Turing of Cambridge University presented an idea of a theoretically simplified but fully capable computer now known as “Turing Machine”.“evolution of computers”

Turing test:

A test proposed to determine that if a computer has the ability to think.

1939 – ABC Computer:

In 1939, ABC computer was developed by John Atanasoff (was the professor) and Clifford Berry (was his assistant). That was the first electronic digital computer based on vacuum tubes it was the great innovative event.

1943 – Harvard Mark 1:

In 1943, Harvard Mark 1 computer was developed by Harvard at Harvard University based on the ideas given by the Charles Babbage but now he was late because this idea based on Punched cards and the computer was the mechanical computer but now the idea of vacuum tubes was being introduced that perform the calculations very fast.evolution of computers

1946 – Invention of ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer):

It was the world’s large scale general purpose electronic digital computer built by John Mauchly and John Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. It was a huge consist of 19000 vacuum tubes, covering the space 9 feet / 80 feet. It used 150kw power and weighed 30 ton.  All the lights of the city were dim when it is turned on.

1947 – Innovation of Transistor:

In 1947, Shockley Bardeen & Brattain invented the transistor at the bell labs in the US.

Transistor benefits over vacuum tubes:

  • They were smaller in size than vacuum tubes.
  • They were more reliable than vacuum tubes.
  • Their rate of power consumption was very low than vacuum tubes.
  • They are less costly than vacuum tubes.

1950 – Innovation of Floppy Disk:

In 1950, Floppy disk was invented for storage by Yoshiro Nakamats as Imperial University. They give it to the IBM and they introduced it in their computers.

1951 – Innovation of UNIVAC 1:

evolution of computers In 1951, UNIVAC 1 (Universal Automatic Computer) computer was developed by John Mauchly and John Eckert Computer Company. Before this all the computer were built for special purposes it was the first large scale general purpose Electronic Digital computer.

Note: This computer was not more powerful than ENIAC but more reliable than ENIAC.

1952 – Development of Compiler:

In 1952, Grace Hopper make the first compiler it was just like the computer program but its benefits were that it translates the whole computer program written in the high level language to low-level language. In this way to write and read the program become very simple.evolution of computers

1969 – Development of ARPANET:

It was developed for US DoD advanced research projects agency.

About 6000 computers connected for communication among research organizations and universities by using this network. This idea was being very helpful in the innovation of Internet.evolution of computers

1971 – Innovation of Microprocessor:

In 1971, microprocessor Intel was invented by Ted Hoff at Intel name as Intel 4004.

It consists of 25000 transistors at that time now a day about millions of transistors are used in the microprocessor.

1975 – Development of Altair 8800 MITS (Micro Instruments Telemetry Systems):

The Category of Personal computer started from this computer it was the world’s first Personal Computer.

It contains the memory about 256 bytes million times smaller than now a day we are using. Visit also Lecture #1 Introduction to Computer and Short History of Computer

Although it consists of 8080 Microprocessor very primitive type of microprocessor it was fully functional. The input was given by using switches and the output displays under the light bulbs.evolution of computers

1976 – Cray 1, First Super Computer:

The computers built up to 1976 are built just for some special purposes like for military or for some special calculations but this was the great innovative event that that first general purpose commercial super computer was developed. Super computers are those that enhance the previous available concepts and theories.  Super computers are used to do special tasks like weather prediction.

Super computers are very fast e.g. it can perform millions of the operations per second. But now modern computers can perform trillions of the operations per second.evolution of computers

1981 – Introduction of IBM PC with MS-DOS Operating System:

In 1981, IBM PC was introduced along with MS-DOS Operating System.

1984 – Apple Macintosh:

In 1984, Apple Macintosh, The first popular user-friendly computer was introduced it was the great event in the history of a computer because in this computer the input was given to the computer by using a mouse. The mouse is navigated to give input to the computer as compared to the previous Personal computers.evolution of computers

1989 – Invention of World Wide Web:

In 1989, WWW (World Wide Web) was invented. It was a great event in the history of a computer that is being used till now even in the mobile phones. It was developed by the Tim Berners Lee British Physicist at the Corn in Geneva. In the next coming lecture, we will discuss WWW in detail.

1997 – Victory of D-Blue Computer by developed by IBM:

In 1997, there was a match between computer D-Blue developed by IBM and a very good player of chess. The computer First time wins that match. How? (D-Blue developers call some chess players and store the billions of the common best instructions in the computer of that game and in this way the computer was analyzing the instruction and compare it to the stored instruction in just 1 or 2 minutes and select the best instruction among them).

The above was the short history or evolution of computers since 1833 to till now…

Visit also Lecture #1 Introduction to Computer and Short History of Computer

Lecture #1 Introduction to Computer and Short History of Computer

Introduction to Computer Short History of Computer

Analytical Engine:

An introduction to Computer and Short History of Computer In 1833, Charles Babbage ( the Very famous mathematician of that era in Cambridge University) design a first digital mechanical general purpose computer named as analytical engine due to this great innovation of Babbage, He is known as the father of Computer.  But in those days there was no high technology exists in those days that can implement the Charles Babbage design.  Charles Babbage was the great researcher and he has not enough money that it can research and implement his design. For this purpose, he with his intelligent and famous student Ada the Countess for lovelies (She was the very famous student of Charles Babbage in mathematics and she writes the first computer program for Babbage’s Digital computer) both decide a plan to earn money. They work for the computing schemes and idea was that they will sell it to the peoples and earn money in this way and they could research easily but an idea flopped and they lose each and everything due to the cleverness of the Charles Babbage.

Harvard mark1

After that in 1943, a computer was made that works on the same principles of Charles Babbage design named as Harvard Mark1 in Harvard University.

This computer:

  • Was mechanical digital gen. purpose computer
  • Was crank driven
  • Could store instructions
  • Could perform mathematical calculations
  • Had the ability to print

Babbage Analytical Engine VS Modern computers:

Analytical Engine can perform all those calculations that a modern computer can do nowadays.

How is the Computer considered as it is better than human OR what the thing that is not possible to do except by using the computer?

There are many features that make the computer better than human. I will explain here 3 main features of a computer.

Blindingly Fast: Computer can perform calculations with very high speed even in the billionth part of a second. For example:

If anyone says to us that calculate 2 + 5. We will give the answer to him very fast that is 7 but if anyone says to us that calculate 5688766 + 57868788. Either W can answer it in 2 and 3 minutes and very accurate answer but if anyone says to us that calculate 8758867886*56786898 + 678986. We cannot do this. In that situation, Computers can calculate this in just a billionth part of a second.  So, Computer can perform calculations very fast.Introduction to Computer Short History of Computer

Accuracy: Computers cannot get bored they perform calculations and provide very accurate result in each and every time they were asked.  For example:

If a person is said to do a single task many times then it will be started to get bored and perhaps it will not give the answer clear and accurate after a time.  But computers can perform a single task many even billionths of the times. They don’t get bored. And will provide the result with that accuracy as they provide the very first time.Introduction to Computer Short History of Computer

Immense storage Capacity: Computers can store huge amount of data for a long and unlimited time. It means that a computer has a Hard Disk that is known as the secondary storage device and used to store data permanently. If we talk about books than a computer can store up to billions of books in its storage it depends upon the size of the hard disk that you are using on your computer.

What are the functions or things that a computer still cannot do like humans?

In some perspective, a computer cannot recognize a face as like humans. It means that computer cannot recognize a person sitting even in front of it. For example:

If we talk about Bazar and the place where there is a huge gathering of peoples and in this situation we can recognize the person even by watching his head or any body part. But this task is very difficult for the computer.  Above is the one example of it that a human cannot recognize a face or pattern like the human.

Can the computer think yes or not ….??? My answer is that it is neither yes nor not it just depends upon that how you define the term think. If thinking means to play chess game then it can think because in 1997 there was a match between computer D-Blue developed by IBM and a very good player of chess. The computer First time wins that match. How? (D-Blue developers call some chess players and store the billions of the common best instructions in the computer of that game and in this way the computer was analyzing the instruction and compare it to the stored instruction in just 1 or 2 minutes and select the best instruction among them).

So if your definition of thinking is just like to play chess game then computers can think and if the definition of the computer is just like the pattern or face recognition than a computer cannot think.Introduction to Computer Short History of Computer

How many computers s exists in this world….??? When we talk about the number of computers then it means that we are talking about the personal computers (PC). According to the latest analyses, it is said that about 600 million computers are present in this world.

Embedded Computers: Embedded computers are those that reside along with the hardware’s and are hidden in that hardware. Like the Microwave oven, Digital speed meter of a car, Burglar alarm etc…

They are not commonly focused but being the students of computer science we should have information about them. They exist about ten times more than Personal computers.

Summary of the 1st Lecture:

  • Very first digital computer
  • Inventor of the first digital computer
  • Very first digital computer VS modern computer
  • Capability of modern computers

In this Lecture, you learn Introduction to Computer Short History of Computer Appear for Next Lecture Soon….

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